Spain’s Supreme Court has sentenced nine Catalan separatist leaders to between nine and 13 years in prison for sedition over their role in an independence referendum in 2017.
Three other defendants were found guilty of disobedience and fined, but will not serve prison sentences.
The 12 politicians and activists had all denied the charges.
Separatists in Catalonia were planning mass civil disobedience ahead of the verdict.
The prosecution had sought up to 25 years in prison for Oriol Junqueras, the former vice-president of Catalonia and the highest-ranking pro-independence leader on trial.
Mr Junqueras was handed the longest sentence of 13 years for sedition and misuse of public funds.
The other sentences ranged from nine years upwards.
The nine were acquitted of a more serious charge of rebellion.